**Pavlo****
DANYLCHENKO**

** **

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**Synopsis**

Thermodynamic states of matter,
examined in General Relativity (GR), are self-inducted by matter spatially
inhomogeneous states of this matter. This fact is caused by the presence of
gravitational field in matter: Gravitational field is the cause of spatial
inhomogeneity of rates of intra-atomic physical processes in matter and,
therefore, it inducts not only the curvature, but also physical inhomogeneity of
intrinsic space of matter [1; 2]. In rigid frames of reference of time and
spatial coordinates (FR) this physical inhomogeneity of the space is in the
inequality of coordinate-like velocity of light in different points of this
space [3] but in the same homogeneous matter. Increasing of coordinate-like
velocity of light during the distancing from compact matter of astronomical
body can be the consequence of gradual change of thermodynamic parameters of
atmosphere and cosmosphere that surround this body. In this case spatial
distributions of coordinate-like velocity of light, which are set by
gravitational field, strictly correspond to concrete spatially inhomogeneous
thermodynamic states of matter.

Adding of the third independent
parameter √ coordinate-like velocity of light to any of two mutually
independent thermodynamic parameters in GR guarantees only conventional
consistency of this theory with objective reality. Indeed, the solutions of
equations of gravitational field for any cluster of gravitationally-bounded
matter are always examined in conventionally empty Universe. However, the
Universe is not empty and, as united solution of equations of gravitational
field and equations of thermodynamics for ideal liquid shows [4], values of
coordinate-like velocity of light are not vacuum values, but gravibaric
pseudo-vacuum values. They are determined by the values of thermodynamic
parameters of ideal liquid accurate to gauge coefficient. Only this coefficient
can be considered as vacuum value of coordinate-like velocity of light. In the
case of presence of both mechanical and thermal equilibriums in matter this
vacuum value of coordinate-like velocity of light is the same within the whole
homogeneous matter, which self-organized its spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium
state and gravitational field that corresponds to this state [4].═ This fact allows us to consider this vacuum
value as gauge parameter, that cannot be observed in quantum intrinsic FRs of
matter and in people world FR in principle. Conventionally empty space that
surrounds such compact matter really is not empty.══ Even the highest cosmic vacuum should be
considered as very rarefied gas-dust incoherent matter, which is directed by
thermodynamic laws the same as ideal gas of noninteracting molecules. There is
a thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between gravitationally self-contracted
compact matter and surrounding it arbitrary rarefied matter of cosmosphere.
Therefore, vacuum value of the velocity of light in this rarefied matter cannot
differ from vacuum value of the velocity of light in the space filled in by
compact matter.═ And, consequently, this
value should be the same in the whole quasi-homogeneous Universe. Thus, vacuum
value of the velocity of light, which is a gauge parameter, should be considered
as strictly equal to the constant of the velocity of light *Я* in the whole space, filled in by any matter that is in
quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic state. And, consequently, the fact that the
rates of quantum time differ in the points of matter, where values of
gravitational potential are different, is caused only by inequality of
thermodynamic parameters of the matter, which fills the whole space, in those
points.

In correspondence with all this,
gravitational red shift of emission radiation spectrum can take place only for
the matters, which possess nonrigid intrinsic FRs, including matters of body
that is in nonfree fall state and matters, which are in non-equilibrium
thermodynamic states. This shift is the consequence of spatial inhomogeneity of
mutually unbalanced influences of the changes of extensive and intensive
thermodynamic parameters of radiating matters on the frequency of emission
radiation. This shift is also the consequence of spatial inhomogeneity of
velocities of mutual motion of the molecules of these radiating matters.
Changes of matter thermodynamic parameters, when matter is in equilibrium
thermodynamic state, lead to the change of only the frequency of quantum
interactions in matter atoms, while their influence on the values of frequencies
of emission radiations is very weak. Frequencies of emission radiations are
determined only by the differences between energy (quantum) levels, values of
which are not changed in atoms at quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic processes.
All this is confirmed by the absence of gravitational smearing of spectral
lines of excited atoms of cold rarefied galaxy medium even when values of their
main quantum numbers are *n ≈ *1000.

Analysis of solutions of the equations of GR gravitational field [4; 5] denotes the thermodynamic
nature of majority of gravitational effects. All gravitational phenomena,
except the phenomenon of curvature of intrinsic space of matter, are strictly
thermodynamic in fact. For example, the fact that bodies, more dense than
surrounding medium, tend to the gravity center, as well as the fact that
bodies, less dense than surrounding medium, tend from the gravity center, is
caused by the fact that the whole system (which consists from all bodies and
the medium surrounding them) tends to the state of the minimum of the integral
value of their enthalpy [4]. In the case of presence of heat exchange integral
value of Gibbs energy also tends to minimum, while integral value of entropy
tends to maximum. From the other hand, the pressure in ideal gas and in any
other incoherent matter is not caused by intermolecular electromagnetic
interaction and, consequently, this pressure itself has purely gravitational
nature. And, therefore, physical phenomena and properties of matter, which are
examined by thermodynamics and theories of gravity in a different
phenomenological way, are based on the same fundamental nature of elementary
particles of matter [1; 6].

In classical physics
potential energy of gravitational field was considered as something external
for the matter, while in GR potential energy is contained in matter itself.
Indeed, free fall of the body is an inertial motion. Released potential energy
of intra-atomic bonds √ energy of electron-nuclear and intranuclear
interactions in the atoms of matter of falling body together with the energies
of elementary particles that form these atoms transform into kinetic energy of
body motion. As it follows from united solutions of equations of gravitational
field and thermodynamics equations [4; 6], all characteristics that determine
gravitational properties of matter and phenomenon of Universe expansion are
also contained in matter itself and cannot be considered as something external
for the matter.

**Gravithermodynamic
FR of people world**

In
classical thermodynamics all intensive thermodynamic parameters of matter are
determined via measuring of extensive parameters (which depend on those
intensive parameters) of matter itself or matter of measuring instruments that
are in thermal equilibrium with this matter. For example, the main method of
temperature measuring is in the measuring of volume occupied by thermometer
liquid. Pressure is determined via measuring of elastic deformation (caused by
this pressure) of any element of recording instrument. Deformation and volume
are both extensive parameters. This makes closed system of the pairs of
mutually complementary intensive and extensive matter parameters
self-consistent and guarantees invariance of intensive thermodynamic parameters
to time transformations. And, therefore, invariant values of thermodynamic
parameters and characteristics of motionless matter, which are used in
classical thermodynamics, are self-sufficient and don▓t need to be a member of
any FR. They can be members only of certain tracking system: system that tracks
changes of thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter. And, from
the other hand, global FR can be formed based on this tracking system.═ The presence of phenomena, for which frequency
of their elementary acts depends only on absolute temperature, is necessary for
this global FR to be non-artificial in nature. Then, the scale of absolute
temperature can be linearly calibrated based on this frequency. The clock,
using which the rates of quantum proper times can be compared and dependences
of these rates on parameters of thermodynamic states of these matters can be
analyzed, can be realized based on this phenomenon. And such phenomenon exists:
dependence (obtained by Wien) of electromagnetic wave frequency, which
corresponds to the maximum of spectral density of equilibrium thermal
radiation, only on absolute temperature and proportionality of this frequency
to absolute temperature. Therefore, united thermodynamic time is used in people
world in fact, instead of quantum time, rate of which is not similar for
different matters and depends on their thermodynamic states. Quantum processes
in etalon matters can only be used for the counting of this time due to the
stability of their rate in this matter when temperature *T* and pressure *p* remain
unchanged. Thermodynamically invariant quantum characteristics √ differences
between energy levels Δ*E _{ij}
*in atoms and frequencies of emission radiation

Thus,
absolute temperature is an intensive parameter that characterizes only the
level of thermal internal energy *U*(*T,p*)*
*of matter, which includes potential energy of interatomic and
intermolecular bonds. Invariance of all thermodynamic parameters and
characteristics of matter to time transformation denotes that all of them
should be relativistic invariants. Therefore, temperatures of phase transitions
should remain internal properties of moving matter. This means that the change
of thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter should have indirect
influence on the change of matter inert mass. And, therefore, nonchemical
internal potential energy of interatomic and intermolecular bonds can transform
into kinetic energy only of chaotic, but not directed, motion of matter
molecules. Thus, not the total energy of matter* W=U+E*, but only the inert energy *E=mc*^{2} that is equal to the sum of internal energies of
elementary particles and energies of intra-atomic bonds and interactions can be
equivalent to the inert mass *m*.
Internal energy of matter *U* can be
considered analogically to kinetic energy and to electromagnetic radiation
energy as already released part of intra-atomic energy.

In classical thermodynamics energy of elementary
particles and energy of their intra-atomic bonds considered as one that is not
changed in thermodynamic processes. In fact, it is not true. Part of potential
intra-atomic energy of gas, which pressure is adiabatically increasing,
transforms into potential energy of stressed state of matter of the vessel that
contains this gas [5]. Release of the part of nonthermal internal energy that
transforms into kinetic energy of directed motion also takes place at the
process of body free fall in gravitational field. Therefore, intra-atomic
energy, which is equivalent to mass, should be also taken into account in
generalized differential equations of thermodynamics as some multiplicative
parameter √ index of intensity of quantum processes in matter.

Rate of any quantum process of intra-atomic
interaction between matter elementary particles in global gravithermodynamic FR
can be characterized by relative average statistic value of frequency of this
interaction [1; 5] *f _{g}=m*/

Gravitational potential is the logarithm of *f _{g}*
and so it can be gauge transformed. Change

And,
therefore, separate contributions to gravitational potential of conventional
gravibaric velocity of light and internal scaling factor are not important for
the determination of gravitational pseudoforces. However, the form of linear
element of matter space-time continuum (STC) depends on distribution of these
contributions: transformations of this linear element when these contributions
are redistributed are not gauge. The presence of internal scaling factor is not
taken into account in GR: function only of coordinate-like velocity of light is
used as gravitational potential. In intrinsic spaces of matter changes of
interaction distances are unobservable in GR in principle, while spatial
inhomogeneity of this distance for uniform matter that takes place in
background Euclidean space (and, consequently, spatial inhomogeneity of the
values of its scaling factor) causes the curvature of matter intrinsic space.

Size of quantum length standard of the gas is
decreasing in people world at the adiabatic increasing of this gas. This fact
leads to increasing of corresponding to this gas quantum value of metrical
volume of the vessel that contains this gas. Therefore, quantum metrical value
of gas molar volume is decreasing not so fast as thermodynamic metrical value
of its molar volume due to the presence of negative feedback [2; 5]. Such
gravitational shrinkage of the size of quantum length standard that takes place
on the elementary particles level is analogous to relativistic shrinkage of the
size of quantum length standard along the direction of matter motion. However,
not quantum but thermodynamic metrical value of matter molar volume is used in
people world. In analogy to quantum clock, quantum and any other length
standards can be used in gravithermodynamic FR of people world only due to stability
of their length when values of temperature and pressure remain constant.

In
contrast to gravitational potentials and external scaling factors used in GR,
gravithermodynamic values of gravitational potentials and internal scaling
factors are not equal for different contacting matters. Only spatial gradients
of the logarithms of frequency *f _{g}*
of quantum interaction in all matters (they are identical to gravitational
field strength), as well as spatial gradients of the logarithms of internal
scaling factor

Relativistic values of total energy *W _{R}=U+E/*ц=

Decreasing of the wave length of radiation in
quasi-equilibrium compressed gas is completely compensated by decreasing of
velocity of radiation propagation in it. This is also confirmed by the fact
that emission radiation frequencies practically do not depend on thermodynamic
parameters of matter. However, such total compensation is absent at
non-equilibrium state of ionized gas of quasars, situated in strong
electromagnetic field (very saturated by radiation gas). In contrast to
⌠cooling■ stars, quasars are heating up and, therefore, not contracting but
expanding due to annihilation of matter and antimatter [1; 4]. Instead of undercompensation of
gravitational shift of radiation spectrum its thermodynamic overcompensation
takes place √ as a result, not red but blue gravithermodynamic shift of this
spectrum takes place. Decreasing of quantum length standard that is not
completely compensated by the decreasing of velocity *v _{c}* of interaction propagation causes not only the
increasing of the frequency of quantum interactions

**Internal contradictions in the theory
of relativity and the main differences between the theory of relativity and
relativistic gravithermodynamics**

Below
is the list of facts that are internal contradictions in GR and SR:

1. The
necessity in use of absolute proper time (instead of classical) of moving
matter, rate of which is determined by the rates of quantum processes in
matter, is declared in SR. However, standard vacuum clock is used instead of
quantum clock of this matter (rate of standard vacuum clock, in contrast to
quantum clock, doesn▓t depend on gradient of the pressure inside this matter).
Thus, the influence of pressure on relativistic dilation of matter proper time
is not taken into account. The influence of pressure in matter on relativistic
shrinkage of coordinate intervals between its macroobjects is also not taken
into account.═ This causes not only the
fact that SR transformations of increments of coordinates and time are
unsuitable for the transition from intrinsic FR of rotating matter to observer
FR (Ehrenfest paradox), but also the problems in GR.

2. The
fact that intrinsic STC of matter is formed directly by matter itself is
declared in GR. In spite of this, values of components of STC metric tensor are
considered to be independent from all properties of matter, situated in
concrete point of space. Thus, metric tensor in this point determines equal
(not gauge mutually transformable, as it is expected) values of gravitational
potentials for all possible thermodynamic states of matter. Therefore,
coordinate-like velocity of light, used in GR, is not a characteristic of
matter, but, in fact, is a characteristic of the form of matter being √ space,
and can take any values that do not correspond to thermodynamic matter
parameters.═

3.
Influence of gravitation on matter, as well as influence of nonuniform motion
on matter, causes not only spatial inhomogeneity of rates of matter proper
time, but also inhomogeneous deformation of matter microobjects in background═ Euclidean space [7] of FR, comoving with
expanding Universe. The principle of unobservability of such deformation in all
matter intrinsic FRs remains valid in GR.══
However, there is some exception in GR for relativistic length
shrinkage: it is considered as observable in all FRs, not comoving with moving
matter.═ This causes the fact that matter
intrinsic space is finite in Schwarzschild solution of gravitational field
equations at nonzero value of cosmological constant. Also this causes the fact
that four-momentum is formed not by the energy, but by enthalpy. And also this
causes many other disadvantages of relativistic generalization of
thermodynamics with Lorentz-invariant volume [8].

4.
Changeability of values of interaction distances of matter elementary particles
in thermodynamic processes (these values together with the velocity of
propagation of interaction determine the frequency of interaction) is not taken
into account in GR. This causes the fact that GR gravitational field equations
correspond to quantum intrinsic FRs of matters, but not to gravithermodynamic
FR of matter of all matters, to which thermodynamics equations correspond. This
makes GR equations useable only for homogeneous matter.

The
fact that vacuum (coordinate-like pseudo-vacuum) velocity of light is more
privileged than true velocity of light in matter in SR and GR makes these
theories more corresponding to unrealizable in principle √ degenerate states of
matter than to real states [4; 5]. The fact that relativistic time dilation, as
well as gravitational potential (and integral equations of gravitational field
in matter), are strictly independent from concrete values of any
characteristics of this matter denotes the excessive simplicity of SR and GR
that causes the primitiveness of representation of objective reality by these
theories. The ⌠beauty■ of these theories, related to their simplicity, does not
correspond to, in fact, not so ⌠perfect■ as it is desired objective reality.

In spite of this, the most of the original positions and principles of
SR and GR are saved in relativistic gravithermodynamics. The main
distinguishing characteristics of relativistic gravithermodynamics are the
following original positions and principles:

1.
Physical vacuum √ not dragged by motion, continuous (structureless) substance,
that rests in comoving with Universe FR. Elementary particles and
electromagnetic waves are only the non-mechanically excited states of this
substance [1].

2.
Gravithermodynamic state of matter is the spatially inhomogeneous average
statistical macrostate of this matter. This state is determined by statistical
distribution of possibilities of various collective space-time microstates
(Gibbs microscopic states) of the whole gravitationally bonded matter. Discrete
changes of collective space-time microstate of matter take place at de Broglie
frequency, which corresponds to the collection of all jointly moving objects of
this matter, and propagate as the quanta of action at supraluminal phase
velocity. This takes place instantly in FR, comoving with matter, because of
the fact that front of quantum of action is identical to the propagation front
of another instant of moving matter proper time in FR of observer of its
motion.════

3.
Transfer of phase changes of collective space-time microstate of matter, as
well as of graviinertial field (gravitational field, removable by coordinates
transformation) strength, at supraluminal velocity do not accompanied by the
propagation of changes of electrical and magnetic strengths in the matter and,
so, by energy transfer [9]. Released intra-atomic energy of matter transforms
into kinetic energy of directed motion before matter is filled in with external
energy transferred at velocity of sound. Therefore, despite of the change of
motion velocity, matter is moving inertially during this period of time. In
fact, free fall of matter in graviinertial field takes place.

4. Any
arbitrary rarefied matter of cosmic vacuum should be considered as incoherent
matter, which is directed by thermodynamic laws, in analogy to ideal gas of
non-interacting molecules [5]. Because of this, and also because of principal
unattainability of the zero value of pressure in gas-dust matter of
cosmosphere, it is inadmissible not to take into account gradual decreasing of
pressure in cosmic vacuum at the distancing from compact matter.═ And, therefore, vacuum solutions of
gravitational field equations are senseless.

6. SR
transformations of spatial coordinates and time are the vacuum degeneration of
generalized relativistic transformations [10]. Relativistic shrinkage of
⌠coordinate intervals■ depends not only on velocity of matter motion, but also
on gradient of the pressure inside the matter. The fact that graviinertial
field is originated in nonuniformly rectilinearly moving matter, as well as in
rotating matter, causes the fact that unobservable in principle relativistic
matter deformation is gravitationally-kinematical, in fact. Relativistic time
dilation in moving matter is also gravitationally-kinematical. Graviinertial
field can be considered as removable only conventionally. Spatial
inhomogeneities of thermodynamic state and of observable (non-relativistic)
deformation of moving matter that correspond to coordinates transformation are
not removed at this transformation.═
Differentiated tracking of the influence of removable and unremovable
gravitational fields on spatial inhomogeneity of thermodynamic state of matter
is impossible. Therefore, in general case gravitationally-relativistic dilation
of physical processes in matter cannot be decomposed on multiplicative
components that separately correspond to unremovable (external) and removable
gravitational fields and to purely kinematical impact.═

7.
Intrinsic spaces of matter are metrically homogeneous (isometric) in principle.
Gravitational, as well as relativistic, shrinkages of dimensions (length standards)
and molar volumes are unobservable in these spaces. Gravitational curvature and
comoving with moving object kinematical curvature of intrinsic space of motion
observer are observable in these spaces, instead of these shrinkages.
Therefore, SR relativistic transformations are the transformations of the
increments only of coordinates, but not of metrical intervals [8].

8.
Covariance of equations of matter motion and state (and, in fact, covariance of
the majority of nature laws) to the coordinates transformations takes place
only for the spaces of gravithermodynamic FRs of matter √ only for the spaces,
in which matter deformations caused only by relativistic and gravievolutional
⌠deformations■ of its elementary particles are unobservable.═ Such deformations are observable in
background Euclidean space [7] of FR comoving with Universe (only in this space
Universe can be homogeneous). Different formulation of the majority of nature
laws, transformation of intensive and extensive parameters and characteristics
of matter that correspond to this formulation and possibly different form of
equations that determine interrelations between them are needed for quantum
intrinsic FRs of matter, in which not only evolutionary but also
gravithermodynamic ⌠deformations■ of its elementary particles (changes of their
interaction distances) are unobservable in principle.

9. All
thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter are invariant to relativistic
transformations of coordinates in principle and, consequently, temperatures of
phase transitions are the internal properties of matter of not only resting,
but also moving bodies.

10.
Spatial inhomogeneity of gravithermodynamic state of the whole gravitationally
bonded matter (including arbitrary rarefied incoherent matter of cosmosphere)
is the cause of the presence of gravity. This inhomogeneity is reflected in
homogeneous matter as certain spatial distribution of Gibbs energy and of corresponding
to this energy conventional intensive parameter √ relative average statistical
value of the frequency of intra-atomic interactions. Therefore, gravitational
field is, in fact, the field of spatial inhomogeneity of matter thermodynamic
state and cannot be any independent form of matter.═ This field was originated due to
self-organization of whole mutually moving matter collective macrostate that
corresponds to the minimum of integral value of this matter Gibbs energy.

12.
Bodies free fall in gravitational field √ is an original realization of
tendency of the whole gravitationally bonded matter to the minimum of the
integral value of Gibbs energy. Bodies that fall independently accelerate in
spatially inhomogeneous medium. In such way bodies transform their continuously
released intra-atomic energy into kinetic energy.

13.
Removable gravitational (graviinertial) field, which is inducted by
quasi-hyperbolic motion of matter during the process of matter free fall,
totally compensates external gravitational field and, therefore, more dense
particles cannot overtake less dense particles of incoherent matter in
principle.═ Pressure in this matter, as
well as relative frequency of intra-atomic interactions, is spatially
homogeneous (and this is reflected in the zero-gravity state). Matter free fall
can be strictly inertial motion of matter only in hypothetic absolute vacuum.
Therefore, matter free fall in atmosphere, as well as in cosmosphere, is only a
quasi-inertial motion.

14.
Not the total energy of matter, but only its inert energy, which is equal to
the sum of energies of elementary particles and energies of intra-atomic bonds
and interactions, is equivalent to inert mass. Therefore, gravitational force
that does not execute work is equal to the product of the Hamiltonian of only
inert energy of the matter and the gradient of logarithm of relative frequency
of intra-atomic interactions.═ By
analogy, d▓Alembert inertial force is equal to the product of the Hamiltonian
of matter intra-atomic energy and the derivative of logarithm of relativistic
time dilation with respect to traversed path. And, consequently, there is no
need in the proving of mutual equality of gravitational and inert masses of
matter.

**Conclusion**

Gravitational field is
the field of spatial inhomogeneity of thermodynamic state of matter and is not
an independent form of matter. Gravitational field cannot exist without matter,
in principle, and, consequently, cannot have its own energy and own linear
momentum that differs from energy and linear momentum of matter, which formed
that field. Therefore, conservation of the sums of values of energy-momentum
and moment of momentum together for matter and for gravitational field is not
necessary in GR. All bonds and interactions between matter structural elements have
the same electromagnetic nature [1; 6], despite they all considerably differ
one from another.══ And, therefore,
gravitational field cannot be completely similar by its properties to
electromagnetic field. Nature abhors uniformity. Nature ⌠uses■ new forms of
bonds and interactions between matter structural elements on each new
hierarchical level of self-organization of matter objects. However, for sure,
all these forms are rather similar, because they are based on the same laws and
principles of appropriateness. Statistical laws, which guarantee the
correspondence of equations of gravithermodynamic state of matter to the
variational principles and, consequently, Le Chatelier - Brown principle, are
the basis of gravitational and other thermodynamic properties of matter.
Gravity forces are strictly thermodynamic pseudo-forces that force all matter
objects to tend to spatially inhomogeneous collective equilibrium states with
the minimum of the integral Gibbs energy of the whole gravitationally bonded
matter. Because of this, GR gravitational field equations are, in fact,
relativistic equations of spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic state of
gauge-evolving matter (equations of gravithermodynamics) [5]. And, therefore, gravity √ is only the
original manifestation of electromagnetic nature of the matter on the
appropriate hierarchical level of self-organization of matter objects.═ And, of course, there are no such objects as
gravitons and gravitational waves that transfer energy (if, of course, moving
matter itself is not considered as these waves).

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