Foundations of Relativistic Gravithermodynamics



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Thermodynamic states of matter, examined in General Relativity (GR), are self-inducted by matter spatially inhomogeneous states of this matter. This fact is caused by the presence of gravitational field in matter: Gravitational field is the cause of spatial inhomogeneity of rates of intra-atomic physical processes in matter and, therefore, it inducts not only the curvature, but also physical inhomogeneity of intrinsic space of matter [1; 2]. In rigid frames of reference of time and spatial coordinates (FR) this physical inhomogeneity of the space is in the inequality of coordinate-like velocity of light in different points of this space [3] but in the same homogeneous matter. Increasing of coordinate-like velocity of light during the distancing from compact matter of astronomical body can be the consequence of gradual change of thermodynamic parameters of atmosphere and cosmosphere that surround this body. In this case spatial distributions of coordinate-like velocity of light, which are set by gravitational field, strictly correspond to concrete spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic states of matter.


Adding of the third independent parameter √ coordinate-like velocity of light to any of two mutually independent thermodynamic parameters in GR guarantees only conventional consistency of this theory with objective reality. Indeed, the solutions of equations of gravitational field for any cluster of gravitationally-bounded matter are always examined in conventionally empty Universe. However, the Universe is not empty and, as united solution of equations of gravitational field and equations of thermodynamics for ideal liquid shows [4], values of coordinate-like velocity of light are not vacuum values, but gravibaric pseudo-vacuum values. They are determined by the values of thermodynamic parameters of ideal liquid accurate to gauge coefficient. Only this coefficient can be considered as vacuum value of coordinate-like velocity of light. In the case of presence of both mechanical and thermal equilibriums in matter this vacuum value of coordinate-like velocity of light is the same within the whole homogeneous matter, which self-organized its spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium state and gravitational field that corresponds to this state [4].This fact allows us to consider this vacuum value as gauge parameter, that cannot be observed in quantum intrinsic FRs of matter and in people world FR in principle. Conventionally empty space that surrounds such compact matter really is not empty.══ Even the highest cosmic vacuum should be considered as very rarefied gas-dust incoherent matter, which is directed by thermodynamic laws the same as ideal gas of noninteracting molecules. There is a thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between gravitationally self-contracted compact matter and surrounding it arbitrary rarefied matter of cosmosphere. Therefore, vacuum value of the velocity of light in this rarefied matter cannot differ from vacuum value of the velocity of light in the space filled in by compact matter.And, consequently, this value should be the same in the whole quasi-homogeneous Universe. Thus, vacuum value of the velocity of light, which is a gauge parameter, should be considered as strictly equal to the constant of the velocity of light Я in the whole space, filled in by any matter that is in quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic state. And, consequently, the fact that the rates of quantum time differ in the points of matter, where values of gravitational potential are different, is caused only by inequality of thermodynamic parameters of the matter, which fills the whole space, in those points.


In correspondence with all this, gravitational red shift of emission radiation spectrum can take place only for the matters, which possess nonrigid intrinsic FRs, including matters of body that is in nonfree fall state and matters, which are in non-equilibrium thermodynamic states. This shift is the consequence of spatial inhomogeneity of mutually unbalanced influences of the changes of extensive and intensive thermodynamic parameters of radiating matters on the frequency of emission radiation. This shift is also the consequence of spatial inhomogeneity of velocities of mutual motion of the molecules of these radiating matters. Changes of matter thermodynamic parameters, when matter is in equilibrium thermodynamic state, lead to the change of only the frequency of quantum interactions in matter atoms, while their influence on the values of frequencies of emission radiations is very weak. Frequencies of emission radiations are determined only by the differences between energy (quantum) levels, values of which are not changed in atoms at quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic processes. All this is confirmed by the absence of gravitational smearing of spectral lines of excited atoms of cold rarefied galaxy medium even when values of their main quantum numbers are n ≈ 1000.


Analysis of solutions of the equations of GR gravitational field [4; 5] denotes the thermodynamic nature of majority of gravitational effects. All gravitational phenomena, except the phenomenon of curvature of intrinsic space of matter, are strictly thermodynamic in fact. For example, the fact that bodies, more dense than surrounding medium, tend to the gravity center, as well as the fact that bodies, less dense than surrounding medium, tend from the gravity center, is caused by the fact that the whole system (which consists from all bodies and the medium surrounding them) tends to the state of the minimum of the integral value of their enthalpy [4]. In the case of presence of heat exchange integral value of Gibbs energy also tends to minimum, while integral value of entropy tends to maximum. From the other hand, the pressure in ideal gas and in any other incoherent matter is not caused by intermolecular electromagnetic interaction and, consequently, this pressure itself has purely gravitational nature. And, therefore, physical phenomena and properties of matter, which are examined by thermodynamics and theories of gravity in a different phenomenological way, are based on the same fundamental nature of elementary particles of matter [1; 6].


In classical physics potential energy of gravitational field was considered as something external for the matter, while in GR potential energy is contained in matter itself. Indeed, free fall of the body is an inertial motion. Released potential energy of intra-atomic bonds √ energy of electron-nuclear and intranuclear interactions in the atoms of matter of falling body together with the energies of elementary particles that form these atoms transform into kinetic energy of body motion. As it follows from united solutions of equations of gravitational field and thermodynamics equations [4; 6], all characteristics that determine gravitational properties of matter and phenomenon of Universe expansion are also contained in matter itself and cannot be considered as something external for the matter.


Gravithermodynamic FR of people world

In classical thermodynamics all intensive thermodynamic parameters of matter are determined via measuring of extensive parameters (which depend on those intensive parameters) of matter itself or matter of measuring instruments that are in thermal equilibrium with this matter. For example, the main method of temperature measuring is in the measuring of volume occupied by thermometer liquid. Pressure is determined via measuring of elastic deformation (caused by this pressure) of any element of recording instrument. Deformation and volume are both extensive parameters. This makes closed system of the pairs of mutually complementary intensive and extensive matter parameters self-consistent and guarantees invariance of intensive thermodynamic parameters to time transformations. And, therefore, invariant values of thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of motionless matter, which are used in classical thermodynamics, are self-sufficient and don▓t need to be a member of any FR. They can be members only of certain tracking system: system that tracks changes of thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter. And, from the other hand, global FR can be formed based on this tracking system.The presence of phenomena, for which frequency of their elementary acts depends only on absolute temperature, is necessary for this global FR to be non-artificial in nature. Then, the scale of absolute temperature can be linearly calibrated based on this frequency. The clock, using which the rates of quantum proper times can be compared and dependences of these rates on parameters of thermodynamic states of these matters can be analyzed, can be realized based on this phenomenon. And such phenomenon exists: dependence (obtained by Wien) of electromagnetic wave frequency, which corresponds to the maximum of spectral density of equilibrium thermal radiation, only on absolute temperature and proportionality of this frequency to absolute temperature. Therefore, united thermodynamic time is used in people world in fact, instead of quantum time, rate of which is not similar for different matters and depends on their thermodynamic states. Quantum processes in etalon matters can only be used for the counting of this time due to the stability of their rate in this matter when temperature T and pressure p remain unchanged. Thermodynamically invariant quantum characteristics √ differences between energy levels ΔEij in atoms and frequencies of emission radiation νijEij/h (here h is the Planck constant) corresponding to them also can be used for this time counting. These characteristics remain unchanged in global gravithermodynamic FR at the conservation of thermodynamic (mechanical and thermal) equilibrium in radiating matter. In quantum intrinsic FR of radiating matter those characteristics are changed when its thermodynamic parameters are changed.


Thus, absolute temperature is an intensive parameter that characterizes only the level of thermal internal energy U(T,p) of matter, which includes potential energy of interatomic and intermolecular bonds. Invariance of all thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter to time transformation denotes that all of them should be relativistic invariants. Therefore, temperatures of phase transitions should remain internal properties of moving matter. This means that the change of thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter should have indirect influence on the change of matter inert mass. And, therefore, nonchemical internal potential energy of interatomic and intermolecular bonds can transform into kinetic energy only of chaotic, but not directed, motion of matter molecules. Thus, not the total energy of matter W=U+E, but only the inert energy E=mc2 that is equal to the sum of internal energies of elementary particles and energies of intra-atomic bonds and interactions can be equivalent to the inert mass m. Internal energy of matter U can be considered analogically to kinetic energy and to electromagnetic radiation energy as already released part of intra-atomic energy.


In classical thermodynamics energy of elementary particles and energy of their intra-atomic bonds considered as one that is not changed in thermodynamic processes. In fact, it is not true. Part of potential intra-atomic energy of gas, which pressure is adiabatically increasing, transforms into potential energy of stressed state of matter of the vessel that contains this gas [5]. Release of the part of nonthermal internal energy that transforms into kinetic energy of directed motion also takes place at the process of body free fall in gravitational field. Therefore, intra-atomic energy, which is equivalent to mass, should be also taken into account in generalized differential equations of thermodynamics as some multiplicative parameter √ index of intensity of quantum processes in matter.


Rate of any quantum process of intra-atomic interaction between matter elementary particles in global gravithermodynamic FR can be characterized by relative average statistic value of frequency of this interaction [1; 5] fg=m/mcr. This value is equal to the division of the mass of one mole of matter by the value of this mass mcr, which corresponds to critical equilibrium value Gcr=Gg0mcrc2 of Gibbs energy G=Gg0mcrc2/fg. Here: Gg0=const √ gravithermodynamic Gibbs energy, which is a spatially homogeneous characteristic of spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium state of matter. And, therefore, Gg0 and mcr are constants, which characterize concrete matter and related only to concrete aggregate or phase state of matter.


Gravitational potential is the logarithm of fg and so it can be gauge transformed. Change fg=Nivc/vccr can be related to the change of gravibaric velocity of light vc in matter (which is alternative to coordinate-like velocity of light in GR vc), as well as to the change of internal (temporal) scaling factor Ni=δlcr/δl of matter [5]. In contrast to used in cosmology spatially inhomogeneous external (spatial) scaling factor Ne, which is the cause of the curvature of matter intrinsic space, internal scaling factor Ni depends on thermodynamic state of matter and takes nonsimilar values for different matters. This factor characterizes the distinction between average statistic value of interaction distance δl in the atoms of concrete matter and the value of this distance δlcr that corresponds to critical equilibrium value of Gibbs energy. Internal scaling factor makes scaling transformation of time-like interval and so guarantees identity of this interval to quantum proper time of matter.


And, therefore, separate contributions to gravitational potential of conventional gravibaric velocity of light and internal scaling factor are not important for the determination of gravitational pseudoforces. However, the form of linear element of matter space-time continuum (STC) depends on distribution of these contributions: transformations of this linear element when these contributions are redistributed are not gauge. The presence of internal scaling factor is not taken into account in GR: function only of coordinate-like velocity of light is used as gravitational potential. In intrinsic spaces of matter changes of interaction distances are unobservable in GR in principle, while spatial inhomogeneity of this distance for uniform matter that takes place in background Euclidean space (and, consequently, spatial inhomogeneity of the values of its scaling factor) causes the curvature of matter intrinsic space.


Size of quantum length standard of the gas is decreasing in people world at the adiabatic increasing of this gas. This fact leads to increasing of corresponding to this gas quantum value of metrical volume of the vessel that contains this gas. Therefore, quantum metrical value of gas molar volume is decreasing not so fast as thermodynamic metrical value of its molar volume due to the presence of negative feedback [2; 5]. Such gravitational shrinkage of the size of quantum length standard that takes place on the elementary particles level is analogous to relativistic shrinkage of the size of quantum length standard along the direction of matter motion. However, not quantum but thermodynamic metrical value of matter molar volume is used in people world. In analogy to quantum clock, quantum and any other length standards can be used in gravithermodynamic FR of people world only due to stability of their length when values of temperature and pressure remain constant.


In contrast to gravitational potentials and external scaling factors used in GR, gravithermodynamic values of gravitational potentials and internal scaling factors are not equal for different contacting matters. Only spatial gradients of the logarithms of frequency fg of quantum interaction in all matters (they are identical to gravitational field strength), as well as spatial gradients of the logarithms of internal scaling factor Ni, are mutually equal in the same world point. These spatial gradients are identical to the gravitational field strength in this point.


Relativistic values of total energy WR=U+E/ц=U+mcrc2fgц and generalized Gibbs energy GgR(T,p,v,vRq)=G+mcrc2/fgц depend on relativistic dilation ц(p,v)≥1of proper time of moving at velocity v matter. Here: vRq=│fg-2‌‌‌‌√‌‌1│1/2‌/ц.


Decreasing of the wave length of radiation in quasi-equilibrium compressed gas is completely compensated by decreasing of velocity of radiation propagation in it. This is also confirmed by the fact that emission radiation frequencies practically do not depend on thermodynamic parameters of matter. However, such total compensation is absent at non-equilibrium state of ionized gas of quasars, situated in strong electromagnetic field (very saturated by radiation gas). In contrast to ⌠cooling■ stars, quasars are heating up and, therefore, not contracting but expanding due to annihilation of matter and antimatter [1; 4]. Instead of undercompensation of gravitational shift of radiation spectrum its thermodynamic overcompensation takes place √ as a result, not red but blue gravithermodynamic shift of this spectrum takes place. Decreasing of quantum length standard that is not completely compensated by the decreasing of velocity vc of interaction propagation causes not only the increasing of the frequency of quantum interactions fg for the quasars, but also increasing of the frequencies of emission radiation. Therefore, energy of ionized rarefied gas of quasars, as well as non-Doppler values of its emission radiation spectrum, should be increasing along with increasing of pressure in cosmosphere at the advancing to cosmological past.Actual value of red shift of quasars radiation spectrum is substantially lower than its theoretical value, determined by Hubble relation, due to the presence of such negative feedback. So the presence of dark energy in the Universe is not necessary.


Internal contradictions in the theory of relativity and the main differences between the theory of relativity and relativistic gravithermodynamics

Below is the list of facts that are internal contradictions in GR and SR:


1. The necessity in use of absolute proper time (instead of classical) of moving matter, rate of which is determined by the rates of quantum processes in matter, is declared in SR. However, standard vacuum clock is used instead of quantum clock of this matter (rate of standard vacuum clock, in contrast to quantum clock, doesn▓t depend on gradient of the pressure inside this matter). Thus, the influence of pressure on relativistic dilation of matter proper time is not taken into account. The influence of pressure in matter on relativistic shrinkage of coordinate intervals between its macroobjects is also not taken into account.This causes not only the fact that SR transformations of increments of coordinates and time are unsuitable for the transition from intrinsic FR of rotating matter to observer FR (Ehrenfest paradox), but also the problems in GR.


2. The fact that intrinsic STC of matter is formed directly by matter itself is declared in GR. In spite of this, values of components of STC metric tensor are considered to be independent from all properties of matter, situated in concrete point of space. Thus, metric tensor in this point determines equal (not gauge mutually transformable, as it is expected) values of gravitational potentials for all possible thermodynamic states of matter. Therefore, coordinate-like velocity of light, used in GR, is not a characteristic of matter, but, in fact, is a characteristic of the form of matter being √ space, and can take any values that do not correspond to thermodynamic matter parameters.


3. Influence of gravitation on matter, as well as influence of nonuniform motion on matter, causes not only spatial inhomogeneity of rates of matter proper time, but also inhomogeneous deformation of matter microobjects in backgroundEuclidean space [7] of FR, comoving with expanding Universe. The principle of unobservability of such deformation in all matter intrinsic FRs remains valid in GR.══ However, there is some exception in GR for relativistic length shrinkage: it is considered as observable in all FRs, not comoving with moving matter.This causes the fact that matter intrinsic space is finite in Schwarzschild solution of gravitational field equations at nonzero value of cosmological constant. Also this causes the fact that four-momentum is formed not by the energy, but by enthalpy. And also this causes many other disadvantages of relativistic generalization of thermodynamics with Lorentz-invariant volume [8].


4. Changeability of values of interaction distances of matter elementary particles in thermodynamic processes (these values together with the velocity of propagation of interaction determine the frequency of interaction) is not taken into account in GR. This causes the fact that GR gravitational field equations correspond to quantum intrinsic FRs of matters, but not to gravithermodynamic FR of matter of all matters, to which thermodynamics equations correspond. This makes GR equations useable only for homogeneous matter.


The fact that vacuum (coordinate-like pseudo-vacuum) velocity of light is more privileged than true velocity of light in matter in SR and GR makes these theories more corresponding to unrealizable in principle √ degenerate states of matter than to real states [4; 5]. The fact that relativistic time dilation, as well as gravitational potential (and integral equations of gravitational field in matter), are strictly independent from concrete values of any characteristics of this matter denotes the excessive simplicity of SR and GR that causes the primitiveness of representation of objective reality by these theories. The ⌠beauty■ of these theories, related to their simplicity, does not correspond to, in fact, not so ⌠perfect■ as it is desired objective reality.

In spite of this, the most of the original positions and principles of SR and GR are saved in relativistic gravithermodynamics. The main distinguishing characteristics of relativistic gravithermodynamics are the following original positions and principles:


1. Physical vacuum √ not dragged by motion, continuous (structureless) substance, that rests in comoving with Universe FR. Elementary particles and electromagnetic waves are only the non-mechanically excited states of this substance [1].


2. Gravithermodynamic state of matter is the spatially inhomogeneous average statistical macrostate of this matter. This state is determined by statistical distribution of possibilities of various collective space-time microstates (Gibbs microscopic states) of the whole gravitationally bonded matter. Discrete changes of collective space-time microstate of matter take place at de Broglie frequency, which corresponds to the collection of all jointly moving objects of this matter, and propagate as the quanta of action at supraluminal phase velocity. This takes place instantly in FR, comoving with matter, because of the fact that front of quantum of action is identical to the propagation front of another instant of moving matter proper time in FR of observer of its motion.════


3. Transfer of phase changes of collective space-time microstate of matter, as well as of graviinertial field (gravitational field, removable by coordinates transformation) strength, at supraluminal velocity do not accompanied by the propagation of changes of electrical and magnetic strengths in the matter and, so, by energy transfer [9]. Released intra-atomic energy of matter transforms into kinetic energy of directed motion before matter is filled in with external energy transferred at velocity of sound. Therefore, despite of the change of motion velocity, matter is moving inertially during this period of time. In fact, free fall of matter in graviinertial field takes place.


4. Any arbitrary rarefied matter of cosmic vacuum should be considered as incoherent matter, which is directed by thermodynamic laws, in analogy to ideal gas of non-interacting molecules [5]. Because of this, and also because of principal unattainability of the zero value of pressure in gas-dust matter of cosmosphere, it is inadmissible not to take into account gradual decreasing of pressure in cosmic vacuum at the distancing from compact matter.And, therefore, vacuum solutions of gravitational field equations are senseless.


5. In contrast to the velocity of propagation of electromagnetic waves in matter, conventional gravibaric velocity of light, which is alternative to GR coordinate-like velocity of light, does not depend on the frequency of these waves. Values of this velocity are equal in straight and opposite directions at propagation of radiation along the direction of matter motion. This is caused by the fact that motion inducts relativistic changes of refractive index of moving matter. These changes cause the fact that values of gravibaric components of longitudinal and transversal values of refractive index are not similar. The values of longitudinal and transversal components of refractive index guarantee the correspondence of relativistic values of longitudinal and transversal components of gravibaric velocity of light to nonvacuum generalized relativistic transformations of spatial coordinates, time and velocities [10].


6. SR transformations of spatial coordinates and time are the vacuum degeneration of generalized relativistic transformations [10]. Relativistic shrinkage of ⌠coordinate intervals■ depends not only on velocity of matter motion, but also on gradient of the pressure inside the matter. The fact that graviinertial field is originated in nonuniformly rectilinearly moving matter, as well as in rotating matter, causes the fact that unobservable in principle relativistic matter deformation is gravitationally-kinematical, in fact. Relativistic time dilation in moving matter is also gravitationally-kinematical. Graviinertial field can be considered as removable only conventionally. Spatial inhomogeneities of thermodynamic state and of observable (non-relativistic) deformation of moving matter that correspond to coordinates transformation are not removed at this transformation.Differentiated tracking of the influence of removable and unremovable gravitational fields on spatial inhomogeneity of thermodynamic state of matter is impossible. Therefore, in general case gravitationally-relativistic dilation of physical processes in matter cannot be decomposed on multiplicative components that separately correspond to unremovable (external) and removable gravitational fields and to purely kinematical impact.


7. Intrinsic spaces of matter are metrically homogeneous (isometric) in principle. Gravitational, as well as relativistic, shrinkages of dimensions (length standards) and molar volumes are unobservable in these spaces. Gravitational curvature and comoving with moving object kinematical curvature of intrinsic space of motion observer are observable in these spaces, instead of these shrinkages. Therefore, SR relativistic transformations are the transformations of the increments only of coordinates, but not of metrical intervals [8].


8. Covariance of equations of matter motion and state (and, in fact, covariance of the majority of nature laws) to the coordinates transformations takes place only for the spaces of gravithermodynamic FRs of matter √ only for the spaces, in which matter deformations caused only by relativistic and gravievolutional ⌠deformations■ of its elementary particles are unobservable.Such deformations are observable in background Euclidean space [7] of FR comoving with Universe (only in this space Universe can be homogeneous). Different formulation of the majority of nature laws, transformation of intensive and extensive parameters and characteristics of matter that correspond to this formulation and possibly different form of equations that determine interrelations between them are needed for quantum intrinsic FRs of matter, in which not only evolutionary but also gravithermodynamic ⌠deformations■ of its elementary particles (changes of their interaction distances) are unobservable in principle.


9. All thermodynamic parameters and characteristics of matter are invariant to relativistic transformations of coordinates in principle and, consequently, temperatures of phase transitions are the internal properties of matter of not only resting, but also moving bodies.


10. Spatial inhomogeneity of gravithermodynamic state of the whole gravitationally bonded matter (including arbitrary rarefied incoherent matter of cosmosphere) is the cause of the presence of gravity. This inhomogeneity is reflected in homogeneous matter as certain spatial distribution of Gibbs energy and of corresponding to this energy conventional intensive parameter √ relative average statistical value of the frequency of intra-atomic interactions. Therefore, gravitational field is, in fact, the field of spatial inhomogeneity of matter thermodynamic state and cannot be any independent form of matter.This field was originated due to self-organization of whole mutually moving matter collective macrostate that corresponds to the minimum of integral value of this matter Gibbs energy.


11. In relativistic thermodynamics, the same as in classical thermodynamics, all characteristic functions (potentials) of matter, which is under the influence of only all-round pressure and is in the state of both thermal and mechanical equilibriums, are determined only by two independent parameters [5] (while in GR there are three such parameters, because it is considered that not strictly concrete, but different values of coordinate-like velocity of light of astronomical objects, which masses are different, can correspond to equal thermodynamic states of the same matter). Therefore, gravitational field equations define only equal gradients of logarithms of relative frequency of intra-atomic interactions for all matters. However, the values of this frequency are not the same for different matters and are unambiguously determined by the values of Gibbs energy and matter constants that correspond to this energy.


12. Bodies free fall in gravitational field √ is an original realization of tendency of the whole gravitationally bonded matter to the minimum of the integral value of Gibbs energy. Bodies that fall independently accelerate in spatially inhomogeneous medium. In such way bodies transform their continuously released intra-atomic energy into kinetic energy.


13. Removable gravitational (graviinertial) field, which is inducted by quasi-hyperbolic motion of matter during the process of matter free fall, totally compensates external gravitational field and, therefore, more dense particles cannot overtake less dense particles of incoherent matter in principle.Pressure in this matter, as well as relative frequency of intra-atomic interactions, is spatially homogeneous (and this is reflected in the zero-gravity state). Matter free fall can be strictly inertial motion of matter only in hypothetic absolute vacuum. Therefore, matter free fall in atmosphere, as well as in cosmosphere, is only a quasi-inertial motion.


14. Not the total energy of matter, but only its inert energy, which is equal to the sum of energies of elementary particles and energies of intra-atomic bonds and interactions, is equivalent to inert mass. Therefore, gravitational force that does not execute work is equal to the product of the Hamiltonian of only inert energy of the matter and the gradient of logarithm of relative frequency of intra-atomic interactions.By analogy, d▓Alembert inertial force is equal to the product of the Hamiltonian of matter intra-atomic energy and the derivative of logarithm of relativistic time dilation with respect to traversed path. And, consequently, there is no need in the proving of mutual equality of gravitational and inert masses of matter.


15. In contrast to gravitational shift of radiation spectrum, declared by GR, gravithermodynamic radial shift of radiation spectrum takes place only for the matters, which possess nonrigid intrinsic FRs, including matters of body that is in unfree fall state and matters, which are in nonequilibrium thermodynamic states. And this shift can be not only red but also blue. Only redistribution of intraatomic energy between stable energy levels of matter atoms, which correspond to unchanged spectrum of emission radiation, takes place at equilibrium changes of matter thermodynamic parameters.



Gravitational field is the field of spatial inhomogeneity of thermodynamic state of matter and is not an independent form of matter. Gravitational field cannot exist without matter, in principle, and, consequently, cannot have its own energy and own linear momentum that differs from energy and linear momentum of matter, which formed that field. Therefore, conservation of the sums of values of energy-momentum and moment of momentum together for matter and for gravitational field is not necessary in GR. All bonds and interactions between matter structural elements have the same electromagnetic nature [1; 6], despite they all considerably differ one from another.══ And, therefore, gravitational field cannot be completely similar by its properties to electromagnetic field. Nature abhors uniformity. Nature ⌠uses■ new forms of bonds and interactions between matter structural elements on each new hierarchical level of self-organization of matter objects. However, for sure, all these forms are rather similar, because they are based on the same laws and principles of appropriateness. Statistical laws, which guarantee the correspondence of equations of gravithermodynamic state of matter to the variational principles and, consequently, Le Chatelier - Brown principle, are the basis of gravitational and other thermodynamic properties of matter. Gravity forces are strictly thermodynamic pseudo-forces that force all matter objects to tend to spatially inhomogeneous collective equilibrium states with the minimum of the integral Gibbs energy of the whole gravitationally bonded matter. Because of this, GR gravitational field equations are, in fact, relativistic equations of spatially inhomogeneous thermodynamic state of gauge-evolving matter (equations of gravithermodynamics) [5]. And, therefore, gravity √ is only the original manifestation of electromagnetic nature of the matter on the appropriate hierarchical level of self-organization of matter objects.And, of course, there are no such objects as gravitons and gravitational waves that transfer energy (if, of course, moving matter itself is not considered as these waves).


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Reference list

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6.     P. I. Danylchenko, in Materials of International scientific conference ⌠D.D. Ivanenko √ outstanding physicist-theorist, pedagogue■, ed. O.P. Rudenko (Poltava Ukraine, 2004), p. 44 (in Russian), E-print archives,

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